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Temperature-dependent sex determination is a notable model of phenotypic plasticity. In many reptiles, including the red-eared slider turtle Trachemys scripta elegans T. KDM6B directly promotes the transcription of the male sex-determining gene Dmrt1 by eliminating the trimethylation of H3K27 near its promoter.

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The random-effects analysis of the 4 studies on having a sext forwarded without consent yielded a mean prevalence of 8. The prevalence of forwarding a sext without consent was The prevalence of sexting has increased in recent years and increases as youth age. Some evidence suggests that adolescent boys are more likely than girls to receive and request sexts. Both received compensation for their work. Shown is a forest plot of studies included in the meta-analysis.

Two independent reviewers extracted all relevant data. The mean prevalences for sending and receiving ge sext were Moderator analyses revealed that effect sizes varied as a function of child age prevalence increased with ageyear of data collection prevalence increased over timeand sexting method higher prevalence on mobile devices compared with computers.

Outlier detection was used to determine if the mean prevalence of each ge sext behavior was affected by extreme values. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: All authors. The existing literature on sexting among youth shows that sexting is a predictor of sexual behavior and may be associated with other health outcomes and risky behaviors.

Two studies 4.

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Between-study heterogeneity was examined using the Q statistic categorical moderators and meta-regressions. The Table summarizes included studies. Elena Buliga University of Calgary assisted in the abstract review. The Q and I 2 statistics were computed to assess for statistical heterogeneity of effect sizes.

However, the true public health importance of youth sexting is unclear at present because the field is handicapped by inconsistent information regarding its prevalence.

Do people sext because of relational anxiety?

Thirty-nine studies met final inclusion criteria. To examine methodological quality and validity of findings, a 9-point critical appraisal assessment tool was developed based on meta-analyses. A study revealed a low prevalence of sexting among participants aged 10 to 17 years, with 2.

Inspection of box plots derived in SPSS version Publication bias was examined using inspection of funnel plots and the Egger test. While it is becoming clear that a sizable of adolescent boys and girls participate in sexting, research examining sex differences has been inconsistent.

Prevalence and patterns of sexting among ethnic minority urban high school students

When data from more ge sext one wave of data collection were provided or when data from one sample ge sext presented across multiple publications, we selected the wave or publication with the largest sample size and the most comprehensive data extraction information. The prevalences of forwarding a sext without consent and having a sext forwarded without consent were Sexting is becoming a more common practice among youth; therefore, age-specific information on sexting and its potential consequences should regularly be provided as a component of sex education.

On review of all full-text articles, 41 studies met inclusion criteria. To ensure accuracy and reliability, all studies were double coded, and discrepancies were resolved by consensus. In addition, references of all articles meeting study inclusion were reviewed for additional studies, and online reports were also searched. However, there remains a lack of consensus on the prevalence of sexting, which is needed to inform future research, intervention, and policy development. The overall summary estimate for receiving a sext was Meta-regression analyses revealed that year of study data collection explained between-study heterogeneity.

Articles were given a score of 0 no or 1 yes for each criterion and summed to give a total score out of 9. The coding criteria for the quality scoring of all studies meeting inclusion criteria are listed in eTable 1 and eTable 2 in the Supplement. Therefore, the remaining 39 studies were used in subsequent meta-analyses. Correction: This article was corrected for a repeated typographical error in the section on April 2, Published Online: February 26, Author Contributions: Dr Madigan had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the presence of potential outliers, and one study was identified. The mean study quality score across the 41 articles meeting inclusion criteria was 6.

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We aim to extend the literature by examining the mean prevalence of sending and receiving sexts, as well as the rate of the nonconsensual forwarding of sexts. A total of articles were identified as potentially meeting inclusion criteria, and full-text articles were retrieved.

Finally, logits are retransformed into proportions to facilitate ease of interpretation.

The overall summary estimate for sending a sext was Prevalence was not moderated by sex, geographical location, message content, or publication status. Recent studies reveal that sexting is an increasingly common practice, with the prevalence increasing each year until youth reach the age of 18 years.

Finally, 31 studies The random-effects analysis of the 34 studies on sending a sext yielded a mean prevalence of The Egger test provided evidence that studies with smaller sample sizes had more extreme prevalence estimates eFigure 1 in the Supplement.

On average, Twenty-two studies Eighteen studies Eleven studies Note that no study examined sexting via sexually explicit ge sext alone.

One of the first published studies on youth sexting was conducted in before the current prolific use of smartphones among youth. However, several methodological limitations likely resulted in the underreporting of sexting, including the use of landlines to conduct the survey and interviews with youth in the presence of parents.

Two of us A. In addition, we extracted 6 study location United States, Europe, or other and 7 publication status published in peer-reviewed journal vs dissertation or report. The 2 studies deemed to have low ge sext quality were removed from analyses. The random-effects analysis of the 20 studies on receiving a sext yielded a mean prevalence of The Egger test provided evidence that studies with smaller sample sizes had more extreme prevalence estimates eFigure 2 in the Supplement. The I 2 statistic examines the rate of variability across studies due to heterogeneity rather than chance.

The histone demethylase kdm6b regulates temperature-dependent sex determination in a turtle species

Learn More. Subsequently, effect sizes are weighted by the inverse of their variance, giving greater weight to studies with larger sample sizes and thus more precise estimates. The random-effects analysis of the 5 studies on forwarding a sext without consent yielded a mean prevalence of No publication bias eFigure 4 in the Supplement or outliers were detected.

To provide a meta-analytic synthesis of studies examining the prevalence of multiple forms of sexting behavior, analyzed ge sext age, sex, geography, and method of sexting. That study had notable strengths, including a nationally representative sample, an explicit definition of sexting, and a wide age range.

Disclaimer: The opinions,and conclusions reported in this article are those of the authors and are independent from the funding sources. Prevalence was not moderated by sex, message content, geographical location, or publication status. A few studies have found that female youth were more likely to send a sext than their male counterparts, while other studies have not revealed any sex differences with respect to sending sexts.


A ificant Q statistic suggests that study variability in effect size estimates is greater than sampling error, and moderators should be explored. Studies were included if participants were younger than 18 years and the prevalence of sexting explicit images, videos, or messages was reported.

Sexting—the sharing of sexually explicit images, videos, or messages through electronic means—has received mounting attention from the popular press and an accumulating amount of attention in the empirical literature.

No other moderators could be explored due to limited studies at each level of the moderators. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to derive the mean prevalence rates.

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Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software transforms the prevalence rate into a logit event rate effect size with a computed standard error. Further research focusing on nonconsensual sexting is necessary to appropriately target and inform intervention, education, and policy efforts.

For the nonconsensual forwarding of sext, data were extracted based on the total sample of youth in the study as opposed to sexting youth only. A total of 39 studies met all study and methodological inclusion criteria. Random-effects models were selected to calculate effect sizes because they represent a more conservative estimate of the mean ge sext. No publication bias eFigure 6 in the Supplement or outliers were detected.

So where does this relationship anxiety come from?

Although research on sexting is no longer in its infancy, there is a lack of consensus on the prevalence of sexting behaviors, which is critically important to informing future research and policy. No language or publication restrictions were applied. Moreover, we aim to determine whether prevalence rates vary as a function of sex, age, and time, as well as other potential moderators.

No outliers were detected. With the published rate of youth sexting ranging from 1.